Achieving climate neutrality will prove to be an unprecedented challenge for the European Union. As the European Climate Law states, reaching the objective of climate neutrality within the European Union by 2050 will require efforts from all economic sectors in the Union. For energy-intensive industries such as cement, lime and steel – key industrial chains for the European economy – the pathway towards net-zero greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 2050 will be technically and economically challenging and the risk of carbon leakage is a serious factor that has to be taken into account.