Comprehensive policies and regulations are crucial to the widespread deployment of CCS

EU Directive

Download the EU Directive 2009/31/EC on the geological storage of carbon dioxide

On 25 June 2009 Directive 2009/31/EC on the geological storage of CO2 entered into force. The Directive establishes a legal framework for the environmentally safe geological storage of CO2 to contribute to the fight against climate change.

EU Case Studies Project

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The UCL Carbon Capture Legal Programme launched the 'EU Case Studies Project' in January 2011 analysing the implementation process of the CCS Directive in selected European jurisdictions.


Marie Donnelly (EC DG Energy) at ZEP...

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CCS policy initiatives

Key European Commission roadmaps towards 2030 and 2050 have identified Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) as a central low-carbon technology to achieve the EU’s 2050 Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emission reduction objectives, although there still remains a great deal to be done in terms of embedding CCS in future policy frameworks. Other significant legislation with an impact on CCS includes the EU Emissions Trading System (ETS), which is intended to drive investment in low-carbon technologies. Given the expected role of CCS in the EU’s energy mix, the EU also adopted a Directive addressing the safety of storage sites in 2009.

EU funding for CCS

In order to secure full deployment of CCS and allow the technology to play its key role in the effort to address climate change, significant investment is needed. A concerted effort between private and public investors is required, not only at national level, but also at European level. At EU level, there are a number of instruments under the present Multiannual Financial Framework (MFF) that could be used to leverage the deployment of CCS technology.

International organisations

Intergovernmental, scientific and environmental organisations have all recognised the potential of CCS to affect positive change in meeting emission targets. They have all highlighted the same challenges, such as large-scale deployment and public confidence. As such, they recommend that a shift in regulatory outlook is needed to actively facilitate, promote and support emerging CCS technologies, as well as a shift in perception and awareness of the technology.

National/regional CCS legal & regulatory developments

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The International Energy Agency produces a regular review of CCS regulatory progress worldwide (called the “IEA CCS Legal and Regulatory Review” or the “IEA CCS Review”), to provide a forum for sharing knowledge on CCS legal and regulatory issues, help countries develop their own CCS regulatory frameworks, and identify steps taken towards the legal and regulatory goals in the 2009 IEA Technology Roadmap: Carbon capture and storage.

The IEA CCS Review consists of contributions by national, state, provincial and regional governments, and several key international organisations involved in CCS. Each entry includes an overview of recent and anticipated CCS advances and addresses a particular CCS legal and regulatory theme, such as authorising CO2 storage. For each edition, the IEA also provides a brief analysis of key advances and trends.

The IEA CCS Review is also available on the IEA’s website at Contact Justine Garrett at the IEA for more information ().

Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation

Part 1: Developments since the second edition

Developments expected in next six-twelve months

Carbon Capture and Storage Legal and Regulatory Review © — OECD/International Energy Agency, 2012.
Disclaimer: The CCS Review contains contributions from various governments and other organisations. Users of this publication should note that the CCS Review contains only selected updates on CCS regulation. It is not intended to be exhaustive and does not constitute any form of advice, including legal, on any specific issue or situation. The IEA makes no representation or warranty, express or implied, in respect of the CCS Review's contents (including its completeness or accuracy) and shall not be responsible for any use of, or reliance on, the CCS Review. The CCS Review does not necessarily represent the views or policies of the IEA Secretariat or individual IEA member countries. Terms and conditions of use here.